This course has been designed to present the principles of advanced hydrology at a postgraduate
level.
At the end of the course, a serious student is expected have a thorough
understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of various components of hydrologic cycle
e.g. atmospheric water, rainfall, infiltration, evaporation, surface flow, sub-surface flow,
groundwater flow, and hydrograph analysis;
And learnt the statistical techniques such as
statistical properties of a PDF, probability distributions employed in hydrology, fitting
probability distributions, testing goodness of fit, frequency analysis, and reliability
analysis.

Contents:
Hydrologic cycle, systems concept, hydrologic model classification;
Reynold's Transport
Theorem, continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation;
Atmospheric
hydrology; Hydrologic processes, precipitation, evaporation, surface flow, sub-surface
flow, and groundwater flow;
Unit hydrograph, various response functions and their interrelationships;
Hydrologic statistics, statistical parameters, fitting a probability distribution,
testing goodness of fit, frequency analysis, and reliability analysis.

Sl. No.

Topic

No. of Hours

1

INTRODUCTION:

Hydrologic cycle, water budget equation,
world water quantities, residence time, systems concept, transfer
function operators,
hydrologic model classification.

03

2

HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES:

Reynold's Transport Theorem, continuity equation, momentum
equation, energy equation, discrete time continuity.

03

3

ATMOSPHERIC HYDROLOGY:

Atmospheric circulation, water vapor,
formation of rainfall, types and forms of precipitation, precipitable
water, monsoon characteristics in India, rainfall measurement,
density and adequacy of rain gauges;

Thunderstorm Cell model, IDF relationships, spatial averaging methods of rainfall;

Factors affecting evaporation,
estimation and measurement of evaporation, energy balance method,
aerodynamic method, Priestly-Taylor method, and pan evaporation.

08

4

SUB-SURFACE WATER:

Soil moisture, porosity, saturated and unsaturated flow; Richard's
equation, infiltration, Horton's Phillip's, and Green Ampt methods,
parameter estimation, ponding time concepts.

Phi-index,
ERH & DRH, algorithm for abstraction using Green-Ampt equation,
SCS method, overland and channel flow modeling, time area
concepts, and stream networks.

06

6

UNIT HYDROGRAPH:

General hydrologic system model, response functions of a linear
hydrologic systems and their inter-relationships, convolution
equation; definition and limitations of a UH;

UH derivation from
single and complex storms; UH optimization using regression.
matrix, and LP methods;

Synthetic unit hydrograph, S-Curve, IUH.

06

7

HYDROLOGIC STATISTICS:

Probability concepts, random variables, laws of probability, PDFs &
CDFs;

Normal and Binomial distributions; Statistical parameters:
expected value, variance, skewness, and peakedness;

Fitting of a
probability distribution, methods of moments and maximum
likelihood: Testing the goodness of fit, Chi-square test;

Frequency
analysis: return period, probability plotting, Extreme value
distributions, frequency factors, Log-Pearson distribution,
confidence limits.

08

8

GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY:

Occurrence of groundwater, aquifers &
their properties, Darcy's law, permeability, transmissibility,
stratification, confined groundwater flow, unconfined groundwater
flow under Dupit's
assumptions;

Well hydraulics, steady flow into confined and
unconfined wells; Unsteady flow in a confined aquifer.

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